Glossary

  • Adaptive Clinical Trials

    Clinical trials in which information learned about treatment response in an early phase of the trial is used to adapt recruitment criteria for later phases of the trial.

    Source:

    Eisenstein, M. Clinical trials: More trials, fewer tribulations. Nature 2014 509, S55-S57.   Link to PubMed

  • Big Data

    Massive amounts of data that are difficult to manage and analyze using traditional software and hardware. In health care, examples of sources for Big Data include electronic medical records, administrative records, prescription data, wearable devices, medical images, laboratory results, and genomic profiles.

    Source:

    Raghupathi, W and Raghupahti, V. Big Data Analytics in healthcare: promise and potential. Health Information and Science Systems 2014, 2:3. Link to article

  • Individualized Patient Care

    An evidence-based approach to patient care that incorporates demographics, medical and family history, genomics, clinical data, and personal preferences.

  • Learning Health System (also Learning Healthcare System; LHS)

    In a learning health system information generated from patients within a system is continuously analyzed to improve patient care. In LHSs, researchers and clinicians analyze various types of health information, including data from clinical visits, laboratory results, medical imaging, and genomic profiling, to gain an understanding of disease processes and how medical interventions affect disease outcomes. The goal is to use these analyses to make increasingly individualized patient care decisions.

    Sources:

    Institute of Medicine. (2007) “The Learning Healthcare System: Workshop Summary (IOM Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medicine.”  Link to IOM report

    Greene SM, Reid RJ, and Larson, EB. (2012) “Implementing Learning Health System: From Concept to Action.” Ann Intern Med, 157(3):207-210. Link to abstract

  • Novel Analytics

    Innovative statistical and epidemiological methodologies used to support individualized patient care, learning health systems, and adaptive trial designs.

  • Novel Measures

    New ways of characterizing disease or health states that can lead to a more precise understanding of an individual’s health status or help guide treatment decisions.

  • Novel Processes

    Innovative methods for conducting biomedical research or delivering care that will lead to increasingly individualized health care.

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